## The KCRC TechNet Puzzle for March 28, 2018

Which factor below will have the greatest effect on the inductance of a coil with the same number of turns?

A Inserting a glass rod inside the coil.

B Increasing the current through the coil.

C Increasing the diameter of the coil.

D Reducing the diameter of the wire.

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## The KCRC TechNet Puzzle for March 14, 2018

The maximum usable frequency is

A usually within about 10% of the critical frequency

B lower than the critical frequency but dependent on the actual path length

C higher than the critical frequency and increases as the path length increases

D higher than the critical frequency and decreases as the path length increases.

And now for the answer to our March 14, 2018 TechNet Puzzle

(It is in “Invisotext” and will be visible if you highlight the area below!)

Sorry, but you can’t use any *Kung Fu* logic on this question – you just must know a few definitions:

**Maximum Usable Frequency** (MUF) is “the highest radio frequency that can be used for transmission between two points via reflection/refraction from the ionosphere (skywave or “skip” propagation) at a specified time, independent of transmitter power. “

**Critical Frequency** is “the highest frequency reflected/refracted for a signal propagating directly upward.”

And how are they mathematically related?

Maximum Usable Frequency = Critical Frequency/cos θ

(Geezzz… not trigonometry?)

At θ of 0 degrees (straight up) cos θ is equal to 1 and MUF is the same as Critical Frequency, as you sweep θ across the horizon at bigger and bigger angles until you are getting near to the 90 degrees of the horizon, cos θ gets closer and closer to zero and the reciprocal of something getting closer and closer to zero gets very high! Obviously, this falls apart when your angle runs out of ionosphere, but that’s the principle.

So, as your path length increases, your θ increases and your MUF in relation to Critical Frequency increases. The answer that reflects this relationship is answer **C** “higher than the critical frequency and increases as the path length increases”, and “C” is the correct answer for this question!

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## The KCRC TechNet Puzzle for February 28, 2018

The field strength from a UHF antenna is measured at a distance of 20m over clear ground. At twice that distance the measurement will be

A much the same value

B about half the first value

C approximately quartered

D impossible to predict.

And now for the answer to our February 28, 2018, TechNet Puzzle

(It is in “invisotext” and will be visible if you highlight the area below!)

Now, I introduced this as a “*trick*” question from the very beginning, so I hope that no one ran for the obvious, *wrong* answer…

In electromagnetic waves, which radio waves are an example of, power diminishes as an inverse square law. The spot of light striking a nearby wall from a flashlight extended twice the original distance will diminish its light to ¼ (1/2^{2}), and if extended three times its original distance, would diminish its light to 1/8 (1/2^{3}). Unfortunately, field strength isn’t the same as power. Field strength decreases by an inverse linear law. Twice the distance produces half the field strength.

RF power can be expressed as Watts per meter^{2}, while field strength can be measured in volts per meter. It is very similar to how voltage and watts are seen to be related in a simple resistive circuit – double the resistance and the power in watts is decreased to one quarter, while the voltage is only decreased to one half.

Once you understand that little *wrinkle* you can see that the correct answer is B “about half the value”.

## The KCRC TechNet Puzzle for February 14, 2018

An antenna is quoted as having a Return Loss of 12dB at its center frequency. The transmission line to the shack has an attenuation of 2dB. The Return Loss measured in the shack will be

A 4dB

B 8dB

C 14dB

D 16dB

And now for the answer to our February 14, 2018 TechNet Puzzle

(It is in “Invisotext” and will be visible if you highlight the area below!)

You may want to look up what “Return Loss” really means – it is the ratio of power loss going from radio to antenna system and BACK AGAIN.

So, you have the 14 dB loss of the antenna, but what about the transmission line loss?

Well, it says 2 dB loss, so 14 + 2 = 14, right?

Ah, but you forgot about the “BACK AND FORTH” part – it’s 2 dB “BACK” and 2 dB “Forth”, for a total of 4 dB return loss for the transmission line.

So, it isn’t 12 + 2, it is 12 + 4 = 16

“D” 16 dB is the correct answer!

## The KCRC TechNet Puzzle for January 24, 2018

What does this interesting bit of electronics in the middle look like to you (please don’t just “Google this all at first – think about it for just a while)?

Is this a…

A Copper Snake

B Hairpin Filter

C Bias-T

D Copper T

(and what the heck might it do????)

And now for the answer to our January 24, 2018 TechNet Puzzle

(It is in “Invisotext” and will be visible if you highlight the area below!)

This one might be difficult to “logic” into the answer alone unless your hobbies are Herpetology and Gynecology <grin>…

“A” Copper Snake, ain’t a euphemism, it’s just a variety of snake – and the illustration is a quite inorganic, nonliving printed circuit board, so this one is out!

“B” Hairpin Filter, is a real “electronics” thing, it is a close relative to a technique called “stripline”, where patterns designed for printed circuit boards can be used as actual components, rather than the wiring that usually connects everything together. Hairpin filters are primarily used in VHF/UHF and microwave. There are serpentine patterns of copper foil, designed into the printed circuit board to act as RF filters – The picture looks a LOT like that, so I think we might have “a keeper” here!

“C” Bias-T is an interesting little circuit that I am sure you have many examples of in a lot of your electronics. Basically, it is a DC/RF Diplexer – you can inject both currents in one port and by way of a DC blocking capacitor and an RF blocking inductor extract the two separate currents out the other end:

Now, that’s all fascinating (at least to me), but that schematic looks nothing like the question’s photo, so it’s not a Bias-T circuit!

“D” Copper T, brings us to the amazing world of Gynecology and contraceptives, in particular, bundled together into the term “intrauterine device (IUD)”. Since this is not a GynNet, or even a BioNet, we’ll leave it as an exercise for the curious to learn further about this non-electronic technology.

So, we look in our back pocket for the possible answer that we haven’t thrown away and we get “B” Hairpin Filter!

See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distributed_element_filter for more information!

## The KCRC TechNet Puzzle for January 10, 2018

Over-driving a power amplifier will…

A give a high SWR

B give minimum distortion on receive

C generate excessive harmonics

D maximize the power output

And now for the answer to our January 10, 2018, TechNet Puzzle

(It is in “invisotext” and will be visible if you highlight the area below!)

Let’s take your choices one at a time:

A) SWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) is a consequence of an impedance mismatch in your antenna system. Although the calculated percentage of reflected power, that many SWR meters use to calculate your SWR is affected, to a degree by your final power output, overdriving your final power output should have no effect upon your antenna system’s SWR, so this one is wrong!

B) Overdriving your final power output stage should only affect your transmissions, not your reception (they are separate circuits inside your transceiver’s block diagram), so this one is wrong, too.

C) This one is a quite reasonable answer, so let’s hold on to this one!

D) Although overdriving your final power amplifier MAY lead to a great power output, it does not necessarily accomplish this (it depends upon the circuit and component choices, so this one very “iffy”

Power amplifiers are usually designed to squeeze as much power out of a design as possible – it’s just good economics, people like MORE power. The problem is not only that a circuit has a maximum gain/maximum output, you are also trying to use your circuit at a power level where it produces a LINEAR response gain. Past this region of LINEARITY, you get a very bad NON-LINEAR response that not only generates distortion on your intended frequency but generates so much distortion that it “leaks” through your amplifier’s filters, to blanket other frequencies with your splatter/noise. This used to be a BIG problem with some CB-ers – they would have their final amplifier input resistor’s resistance decreased, increasing the circuit’s gain, at the price of non-linearity, distortion and out of frequency emissions, but hey the wattmeter looked great!

As you have gleaned by now, the correct answer is/was “C”, excessive harmonic noise!